List of relevant references used for the designing of the SCOPE project.

  1. Chapter 1: Definition and classification of CKD. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2013;3: 19-62.

  2. Roderick PJ, Atkins RJ, Smeeth L, et al. Detecting chronic kidney disease in older people; what are the implications? Age Ageing. 2008;37: 179-186.

  3. Lattanzio F, Corsonello A, Abbatecola AM, et al. Relationship between renal function and physical performance in elderly hospitalized patients. Rejuvenation Res. 2012;15: 545-552.

  4. Roshanravan B, Khatri M, Robinson-Cohen C, et al. A prospective study of frailty in nephrology-referred patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60: 912-921.

  5. Fried LF, Lee JS, Shlipak M, et al. Chronic kidney disease and functional limitation in older people: health, aging and body composition study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54: 750-756.

  6. Pedone C, Corsonello A, Bandinelli S, Pizzarelli F, Ferrucci L, Incalzi RA. Relationship between renal function and functional decline: role of the estimating equation. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13: 84 e11-84. pillole dimagranti per obesi

  7. Kurella M, Chertow GM, Fried LF, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment in the elderly: the health, aging, and body composition study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16: 2127-2133.

  8. Deva R, Alias MA, Colville D, et al. Vision-threatening retinal abnormalities in chronic kidney disease stages 3 to 5. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6: 1866-1871.

  9. Duenhas MR, Draibe SA, Avesani CM, Sesso R, Cuppari L. Influence of renal function on spontaneous dietary intake and on nutritional status of chronic renal insufficiency patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57: 1473-1478.

  10. Morley JE, Abbatecola AM, Argiles JM, et al. Sarcopenia with limited mobility: an international consensus. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011;12: 403-409.

  11. Foley RN, Wang C, Ishani A, Collins AJ, Murray AM. Kidney function and sarcopenia in the United States general population: NHANES III. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27: 279-286.

  12. Tonelli M, Riella M. Chronic kidney disease and the ageing population. Lancet. 2014;383: 1278-1279.

  13. Levey AS, Inker LA, Coresh J. GFR estimation: from physiology to public health. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63: 820-834.

  14. Stevens PE, Lamb EJ, Levin A. Integrating Guidelines, CKD, Multimorbidity, and Older Adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014.

  15. Grams ME, Chow EK, Segev DL, Coresh J. Lifetime incidence of CKD stages 3-5 in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62: 245-252.

  16. Hennekens CH`, Buring JE`, Mayrent SL. Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little`, Brown & Co.`; 1987.

  17. Wilson JMG`, Jungner G. Principles and practice of screening for disease. Geneva: WHO`; 1968. Available at http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/4/07-050112BP.pdf

  18. Moyer VA. Screening for chronic kidney disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157: 567-570.

  19. Komenda P, Ferguson TW, Macdonald K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of primary screening for CKD: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63: 789-797.

  20. Stevens PE, Levin A. Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158: 825-830.

  21. de Jong PE, van der Velde M, Gansevoort RT, Zoccali C. Screening for chronic kidney disease: where does Europe go? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3: 616-623.

  22. Eckardt KU, Barthlein B, Baid-Agrawal S, et al. The German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study: design and methods. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27: 1454-1460.

  23. Corsonello A, Pedone C, Corica F, et al. Concealed renal failure and adverse drug reactions in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60: 1147-1151.

  24. Corsonello A, Pedone C, Corica F, Mussi C, Carbonin P, Antonelli Incalzi R. Concealed renal insufficiency and adverse drug reactions in elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165: 790-795.

  25. Pedone C, Corsonello A, Incalzi RA. Estimating renal function in older people: a comparison of three formulas. Age Ageing. 2006;35: 121-126.

  26. Pedone C, Semeraro R, Chiurco D, et al. Reliability of equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in the very old. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008;20: 496-502.

  27. Corsonello A, Pedone C, Lattanzio F, et al. Agreement between equations estimating glomerular filtration rate in elderly nursing home residents and in hospitalised patients: implications for drug dosing. Age Ageing. 2011;40: 583-589.

  28. Montesanto A, De Rango F, Berardelli M, et al. Glomerular filtration rate in the elderly and in the oldest old: correlation with frailty and mortality. Age (Dordr). 2014.

  29. Mann E, Koller M, Mann C, van der Cammen T, Steurer J. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) in general practice: results from a pilot study in Vorarlberg, Austria. BMC Geriatr. 2004;4: 4.

  30. Evans SJ, Sayers M, Mitnitski A, Rockwood K. The risk of adverse outcomes in hospitalized older patients in relation to a frailty index based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Age Ageing. 2014;43: 127-132.

  31. Stiffler KA, Finley A, Midha S, Wilber ST. Frailty assessment in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2013;45: 291-298.

  32. Bernabei R, Landi F, Onder G, Liperoti R, Gambassi G. Second and third generation assessment instruments: the birth of standardization in geriatric care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63: 308-313.

  33. Klein JP`, Moeschberger ML. Survival Analysis—Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2003

  34. Therneau TM`, Grambsch PM. Modeling Survival Data—Extending the Cox Model. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

  35. Verbeke G`, Molenberghs G. Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

  36. Diggle P`, Heagerty PJ`, Liang KY et al. Analysis of Longitudinal Data`, 2nd edition. Oxford`, UK: Oxford Science Publications`, Clarendon Press`, 2002

  37. Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology. 1982;143: 29-36.

  38. Hosmer DW`, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression (2nd Edition). New York`, NY: John Wiley & Sons`; 2000.

  39. Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130: 461-470.

  40. Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150: 604-612.

  41. Pencina MJ, D'Agostino RB, Sr., D'Agostino RB, Jr., Vasan RS. Evaluating the added predictive ability of a new marker: from area under the ROC curve to reclassification and beyond. Stat Med. 2008;27: 157-172; discussion 207-112.

  42. Harrell FE, Jr., Lee KL, Mark DB. Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat Med. 1996;15: 361-387.

  43. Halbesma N, Brantsma AH, Bakker SJ, et al. Gender differences in predictors of the decline of renal function in the general population. Kidney Int. 2008;74: 505-512.

  44. Xu R, Zhang LX, Zhang PH, Wang F, Zuo L, Wang HY. Gender differences in age-related decline in glomerular filtration rates in healthy people and chronic kidney disease patients. BMC Nephrol. 2010;11: 20.

  45. Akasaka H, Yoshida H, Takizawa H, et al. The impact of elevation of serum uric acid level on the natural history of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and its sex difference. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29: 1932-1939.

  46. Stevens PE, O'Donoghue DJ, de Lusignan S, et al. Chronic kidney disease management in the United Kingdom: NEOERICA project results. Kidney Int. 2007;72: 92-99.

  47. Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Mancini M, Zanchetti A, Lombardi C, De Santo NG. Low glomerular filtration in the population: prevalence, associated disorders, and awareness. Kidney Int. 2006;70: 800-806.

  48. Astor BC, Matsushita K, Gansevoort RT, et al. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts. Kidney Int. 2011;79: 1331-1340.

  49. Lattanzio F CA, Abbatecola AM, Volpato S, Pedone C, Pranno L, Laino I, Garasto S, Corica F, Passarino G, Antonelli Incalzi R. Relationship between renal function and physical performance in elderly hospitalized patients. Rejuvenation Res. 2012; 15(6): 545-552.

  50. Shlipak MG, Stehman-Breen C, Fried LF, et al. The presence of frailty in elderly persons with chronic renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43: 861-867.

  51. Walker SR, Gill K, Macdonald K, et al. Association of frailty and physical function in patients with non-dialysis CKD: a systematic review. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14: 228.

  52. Yaffe K, Ackerson L, Kurella Tamura M, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive function in older adults: findings from the chronic renal insufficiency cohort cognitive study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58: 338-345.

  53. Disthabanchong S. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease: Pathogenesis and clinical implication. World J Nephrol. 2012;1: 43-53.

  54. Pantoni L. Cerebral small vessel disease: from pathogenesis and clinical characteristics to therapeutic challenges. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9: 689-701.

  55. Seliger SL, Siscovick DS, Stehman-Breen CO, et al. Moderate renal impairment and risk of dementia among older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15: 1904-1911.

  56. Madero M, Gul A, Sarnak MJ. Cognitive function in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial. 2008;21: 29-37.

  57. Reckert A, Hinrichs J, Pavenstadt H, Frye B, Heuft G. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2013;59: 170-188.

  58. Tsai YC, Chiu YW, Hung CC, et al. Association of symptoms of depression with progression of CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60: 54-61.

  59. Balogun RA, Abdel-Rahman EM, Balogun SA, et al. Association of depression and antidepressant use with mortality in a large cohort of patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7: 1793-1800.

  60. Topinkova E. Aging, disability and frailty. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52 Suppl 1: 6-11.

  61. Suzuki H, Asakawa A, Amitani H, Nakamura N, Inui A. Ghrelin and cachexia in chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013;28: 521-526.

  62. Doogue MP, Polasek TM. Drug dosing in renal disease. Clin Biochem Rev. 2011;32: 69-73.

  63. Corsonello A, Laino I, Garasto S, Incalzi RA. Estimating renal function in older and frail patients: implications for drug dosing. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13: e5; author reply e6.

  64. Drenth-van Maanen AC, Jansen PA, Proost JH, et al. Renal function assessment in older adults. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;76: 616-623.

  65. Cox HJ, Bhandari S, Rigby AS, Kilpatrick ES. Mortality at low and high estimated glomerular filtration rate values: a 'U' shaped curve. Nephron Clin Pract. 2008;110: c67-72.

  66. Peters R, Beckett N, Poulter R, et al. Kidney function in the very elderly with hypertension: data from the hypertension in the very elderly (HYVET) trial. Age Ageing. 2013;42: 253-258.

  67. Tonelli M, Klarenbach SW, Lloyd AM, et al. Higher estimated glomerular filtration rates may be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes, especially with concomitant proteinuria. Kidney Int. 2011;80: 1306-1314.

  68. Shastri S, Katz R, Rifkin DE, et al. Kidney function and mortality in octogenarians: Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60: 1201-1207.

  69. Schaeffner ES, Ebert N, Delanaye P, et al. Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157: 471-481.

  70. Shastri S, Sarnak MJ. Chronic kidney disease: High eGFR and mortality: high true GFR or a marker of frailty? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7: 680-682.

  71. Montesanto A`, De Rango F`, Berardelli M et al. Glomerular filtration rate in the elderly and in the oldest old: correlation with frailty and mortality. Age 2014 (in press)

  72. Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, et al. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18: 2749-2757.

  73. Foster MC, Inker LA, Levey AS, et al. Novel filtration markers as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in US adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62: 42-51.

  74. Reese PP, Cappola AR, Shults J, et al. Physical performance and frailty in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2013;38: 307-315.

  75. Cook WL. The intersection of geriatrics and chronic kidney disease: frailty and disability among older adults with kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2009;16: 420-429.

  76. Klein JP`, Moeschberger ML. Survival Analysis—Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2003

  77. Therneau TM`, Grambsch PM. Modeling Survival Data—Extending the Cox Model. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

  78. Verbeke G`, Molenberghs G. Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

  79. Diggle P`, Heagerty PJ`, Liang KY et al. Analysis of Longitudinal Data`, 2nd edition. Oxford`, UK: Oxford Science Publications`, Clarendon Press`, 2002

  80. Hosmer DW`, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression (2nd Edition). New York`, NY: John Wiley & Sons`; 2000.

  81. PHS-HCF. International classification of diseases`, ninth revision`, clinical modifications. Washington`, DC: Public Health Service`, Health Care Financing Administration`, 1980

  82. Pahor M, Chrischilles EA, Guralnik JM, Brown SL, Wallace RB, Carbonin P. Drug data coding and analysis in epidemiologic studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994;10: 405-411.

  83. Carosella L, Pahor M, Pedone C, Zuccala G, Manto A, Carbonin P. Pharmacosurveillance in hospitalized patients in Italy. Study design of the 'Gruppo Italiano di Farmacovigilanza nell'Anziano' (GIFA). Pharmacol Res. 1999;40: 287-295.

  84. World Health Organization. International Drug Monitoring: The Role of the Hospital. Geneva`, Switzerland: World Health Organization`; 1969. WHO Technical Report Series No. 425.

  85. Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30: 239-245.

  86. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12: 189-198.

  87. Lesher EL, Berryhill JS. Validation of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form among inpatients. J Clin Psychol. 1994;50: 256-260.

  88. Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of Illness in the Aged. The Index of Adl: A Standardized Measure of Biological and Psychosocial Function. JAMA. 1963;185: 914-919.

  89. Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist. 1969;9: 179-186.

  90. Conwell Y, Forbes NT, Cox C, Caine ED. Validation of a measure of physical illness burden at autopsy: the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41: 38-41.

  91. Guigoz Y, Vellas B, Garry PJ. Assessing the nutritional status of the elderly: The Mini Nutritional Assessment as part of the geriatric evaluation. Nutr Rev. 1996;54: S59-65.

  92. McAvay G, Rodin J. Interindividual and intraindividual variation in repeated measures of 24-hour dietary recall in the elderly. Appetite. 1988;11: 97-110.

  93. Yamada Y, Vlachova M, Richter T, et al. Prevalence and Correlates of Hearing and Visual Impairments in European Nursing Homes: Results From the SHELTER Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014.

  94. Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994;49: M85-94.

  95. Bosaeus I, Wilcox G, Rothenberg E, Strauss BJ. Skeletal muscle mass in hospitalized elderly patients: comparison of measurements by single-frequency BIA and DXA. Clin Nutr. 2014;33: 426-431.

  96. Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Baumgartner RN, Ross R. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;89: 465-471.

  97. Food and Drug Administration. Standardized definitions for end point events in cardiovascular trials. 2010 (http://www.cdisc.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/0/2356ae38ac190ab8ca4ae0b222392b37/misc/cdisc_november_16__2010.pdf)

  98. Novak M, Guest C. Application of a multidimensional caregiver burden inventory. Gerontologist. 1989;29: 798-803.

  99. The EuroQol Group. http:`\`\www.euroqol.org

Chapter 1: Definition and classification of CKD. Kidney Int Suppl (2011). 2013;3: 19-62.

Roderick PJ, Atkins RJ, Smeeth L, et al. Detecting chronic kidney disease in older people; what are the implications? Age Ageing. 2008;37: 179-186.

Lattanzio F, Corsonello A, Abbatecola AM, et al. Relationship between renal function and physical performance in elderly hospitalized patients. Rejuvenation Res. 2012;15: 545-552.

Roshanravan B, Khatri M, Robinson-Cohen C, et al. A prospective study of frailty in nephrology-referred patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60: 912-921.

Fried LF, Lee JS, Shlipak M, et al. Chronic kidney disease and functional limitation in older people: health, aging and body composition study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54: 750-756.

Pedone C, Corsonello A, Bandinelli S, Pizzarelli F, Ferrucci L, Incalzi RA. Relationship between renal function and functional decline: role of the estimating equation. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13: 84 e11-84.

Kurella M, Chertow GM, Fried LF, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment in the elderly: the health, aging, and body composition study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16: 2127-2133.

Deva R, Alias MA, Colville D, et al. Vision-threatening retinal abnormalities in chronic kidney disease stages 3 to 5. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6: 1866-1871.

Duenhas MR, Draibe SA, Avesani CM, Sesso R, Cuppari L. Influence of renal function on spontaneous dietary intake and on nutritional status of chronic renal insufficiency patients. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57: 1473-1478.

Morley JE, Abbatecola AM, Argiles JM, et al. Sarcopenia with limited mobility: an international consensus. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011;12: 403-409.

Foley RN, Wang C, Ishani A, Collins AJ, Murray AM. Kidney function and sarcopenia in the United States general population: NHANES III. Am J Nephrol. 2007;27: 279-286.

Tonelli M, Riella M. Chronic kidney disease and the ageing population. Lancet. 2014;383: 1278-1279.

Levey AS, Inker LA, Coresh J. GFR estimation: from physiology to public health. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63: 820-834.

Stevens PE, Lamb EJ, Levin A. Integrating Guidelines, CKD, Multimorbidity, and Older Adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014.

Grams ME, Chow EK, Segev DL, Coresh J. Lifetime incidence of CKD stages 3-5 in the United States. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62: 245-252.

Hennekens CH`, Buring JE`, Mayrent SL. Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little`, Brown & Co.`; 1987.

Wilson JMG`, Jungner G. Principles and practice of screening for disease. Geneva: WHO`; 1968. Available at http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/4/07-050112BP.pdf

Moyer VA. Screening for chronic kidney disease: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157: 567-570.

Komenda P, Ferguson TW, Macdonald K, et al. Cost-effectiveness of primary screening for CKD: a systematic review. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63: 789-797.

Stevens PE, Levin A. Evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease: synopsis of the kidney disease: improving global outcomes 2012 clinical practice guideline. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158: 825-830.

de Jong PE, van der Velde M, Gansevoort RT, Zoccali C. Screening for chronic kidney disease: where does Europe go? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3: 616-623.

Eckardt KU, Barthlein B, Baid-Agrawal S, et al. The German Chronic Kidney Disease (GCKD) study: design and methods. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27: 1454-1460.

Corsonello A, Pedone C, Corica F, et al. Concealed renal failure and adverse drug reactions in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60: 1147-1151.

Corsonello A, Pedone C, Corica F, Mussi C, Carbonin P, Antonelli Incalzi R. Concealed renal insufficiency and adverse drug reactions in elderly hospitalized patients. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165: 790-795.

Pedone C, Corsonello A, Incalzi RA. Estimating renal function in older people: a comparison of three formulas. Age Ageing. 2006;35: 121-126.

Pedone C, Semeraro R, Chiurco D, et al. Reliability of equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in the very old. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008;20: 496-502.

Corsonello A, Pedone C, Lattanzio F, et al. Agreement between equations estimating glomerular filtration rate in elderly nursing home residents and in hospitalised patients: implications for drug dosing. Age Ageing. 2011;40: 583-589.

Montesanto A, De Rango F, Berardelli M, et al. Glomerular filtration rate in the elderly and in the oldest old: correlation with frailty and mortality. Age (Dordr). 2014.

Mann E, Koller M, Mann C, van der Cammen T, Steurer J. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) in general practice: results from a pilot study in Vorarlberg, Austria. BMC Geriatr. 2004;4: 4.

Evans SJ, Sayers M, Mitnitski A, Rockwood K. The risk of adverse outcomes in hospitalized older patients in relation to a frailty index based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Age Ageing. 2014;43: 127-132.

Stiffler KA, Finley A, Midha S, Wilber ST. Frailty assessment in the emergency department. J Emerg Med. 2013;45: 291-298.

Bernabei R, Landi F, Onder G, Liperoti R, Gambassi G. Second and third generation assessment instruments: the birth of standardization in geriatric care. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63: 308-313.

Klein JP`, Moeschberger ML. Survival Analysis—Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2003

Therneau TM`, Grambsch PM. Modeling Survival Data—Extending the Cox Model. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

Verbeke G`, Molenberghs G. Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

Diggle P`, Heagerty PJ`, Liang KY et al. Analysis of Longitudinal Data`, 2nd edition. Oxford`, UK: Oxford Science Publications`, Clarendon Press`, 2002

Hanley JA, McNeil BJ. The meaning and use of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Radiology. 1982;143: 29-36.

Hosmer DW`, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression (2nd Edition). New York`, NY: John Wiley & Sons`; 2000.

Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130: 461-470.

Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH, et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150: 604-612.

Pencina MJ, D'Agostino RB, Sr., D'Agostino RB, Jr., Vasan RS. Evaluating the added predictive ability of a new marker: from area under the ROC curve to reclassification and beyond. Stat Med. 2008;27: 157-172; discussion 207-112.

Harrell FE, Jr., Lee KL, Mark DB. Multivariable prognostic models: issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat Med. 1996;15: 361-387.

Halbesma N, Brantsma AH, Bakker SJ, et al. Gender differences in predictors of the decline of renal function in the general population. Kidney Int. 2008;74: 505-512.

Xu R, Zhang LX, Zhang PH, Wang F, Zuo L, Wang HY. Gender differences in age-related decline in glomerular filtration rates in healthy people and chronic kidney disease patients. BMC Nephrol. 2010;11: 20.

Akasaka H, Yoshida H, Takizawa H, et al. The impact of elevation of serum uric acid level on the natural history of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and its sex difference. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29: 1932-1939.

Stevens PE, O'Donoghue DJ, de Lusignan S, et al. Chronic kidney disease management in the United Kingdom: NEOERICA project results. Kidney Int. 2007;72: 92-99.

Cirillo M, Laurenzi M, Mancini M, Zanchetti A, Lombardi C, De Santo NG. Low glomerular filtration in the population: prevalence, associated disorders, and awareness. Kidney Int. 2006;70: 800-806.

Astor BC, Matsushita K, Gansevoort RT, et al. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts. Kidney Int. 2011;79: 1331-1340.

Lattanzio F CA, Abbatecola AM, Volpato S, Pedone C, Pranno L, Laino I, Garasto S, Corica F, Passarino G, Antonelli Incalzi R. Relationship between renal function and physical performance in elderly hospitalized patients. Rejuvenation Res. 2012; 15(6): 545-552.

Shlipak MG, Stehman-Breen C, Fried LF, et al. The presence of frailty in elderly persons with chronic renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43: 861-867.

Walker SR, Gill K, Macdonald K, et al. Association of frailty and physical function in patients with non-dialysis CKD: a systematic review. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14: 228.

Yaffe K, Ackerson L, Kurella Tamura M, et al. Chronic kidney disease and cognitive function in older adults: findings from the chronic renal insufficiency cohort cognitive study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58: 338-345.

Disthabanchong S. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease: Pathogenesis and clinical implication. World J Nephrol. 2012;1: 43-53.

Pantoni L. Cerebral small vessel disease: from pathogenesis and clinical characteristics to therapeutic challenges. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9: 689-701.

Seliger SL, Siscovick DS, Stehman-Breen CO, et al. Moderate renal impairment and risk of dementia among older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15: 1904-1911.

Madero M, Gul A, Sarnak MJ. Cognitive function in chronic kidney disease. Semin Dial. 2008;21: 29-37.

Reckert A, Hinrichs J, Pavenstadt H, Frye B, Heuft G. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2013;59: 170-188.

Tsai YC, Chiu YW, Hung CC, et al. Association of symptoms of depression with progression of CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60: 54-61.

Balogun RA, Abdel-Rahman EM, Balogun SA, et al. Association of depression and antidepressant use with mortality in a large cohort of patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7: 1793-1800.

Topinkova E. Aging, disability and frailty. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52 Suppl 1: 6-11.

Suzuki H, Asakawa A, Amitani H, Nakamura N, Inui A. Ghrelin and cachexia in chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013;28: 521-526.

Doogue MP, Polasek TM. Drug dosing in renal disease. Clin Biochem Rev. 2011;32: 69-73.

Corsonello A, Laino I, Garasto S, Incalzi RA. Estimating renal function in older and frail patients: implications for drug dosing. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012;13: e5; author reply e6.

Drenth-van Maanen AC, Jansen PA, Proost JH, et al. Renal function assessment in older adults. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2013;76: 616-623.

Cox HJ, Bhandari S, Rigby AS, Kilpatrick ES. Mortality at low and high estimated glomerular filtration rate values: a 'U' shaped curve. Nephron Clin Pract. 2008;110: c67-72.

Peters R, Beckett N, Poulter R, et al. Kidney function in the very elderly with hypertension: data from the hypertension in the very elderly (HYVET) trial. Age Ageing. 2013;42: 253-258.

Tonelli M, Klarenbach SW, Lloyd AM, et al. Higher estimated glomerular filtration rates may be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes, especially with concomitant proteinuria. Kidney Int. 2011;80: 1306-1314.

Shastri S, Katz R, Rifkin DE, et al. Kidney function and mortality in octogenarians: Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60: 1201-1207.

Schaeffner ES, Ebert N, Delanaye P, et al. Two novel equations to estimate kidney function in persons aged 70 years or older. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157: 471-481.

Shastri S, Sarnak MJ. Chronic kidney disease: High eGFR and mortality: high true GFR or a marker of frailty? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011;7: 680-682.

Montesanto A`, De Rango F`, Berardelli M et al. Glomerular filtration rate in the elderly and in the oldest old: correlation with frailty and mortality. Age 2014 (in press)

Stevens LA, Coresh J, Feldman HI, et al. Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18: 2749-2757.

Foster MC, Inker LA, Levey AS, et al. Novel filtration markers as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in US adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62: 42-51.

Reese PP, Cappola AR, Shults J, et al. Physical performance and frailty in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2013;38: 307-315.

Cook WL. The intersection of geriatrics and chronic kidney disease: frailty and disability among older adults with kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2009;16: 420-429.

Klein JP`, Moeschberger ML. Survival Analysis—Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2003

Therneau TM`, Grambsch PM. Modeling Survival Data—Extending the Cox Model. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

Verbeke G`, Molenberghs G. Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. New York`, NY: Springer`, 2000

Diggle P`, Heagerty PJ`, Liang KY et al. Analysis of Longitudinal Data`, 2nd edition. Oxford`, UK: Oxford Science Publications`, Clarendon Press`, 2002

Hosmer DW`, Lemeshow S. Applied Logistic Regression (2nd Edition). New York`, NY: John Wiley & Sons`; 2000.

PHS-HCF. International classification of diseases`, ninth revision`, clinical modifications. Washington`, DC: Public Health Service`, Health Care Financing Administration`, 1980

Pahor M, Chrischilles EA, Guralnik JM, Brown SL, Wallace RB, Carbonin P. Drug data coding and analysis in epidemiologic studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 1994;10: 405-411.

Carosella L, Pahor M, Pedone C, Zuccala G, Manto A, Carbonin P. Pharmacosurveillance in hospitalized patients in Italy. Study design of the 'Gruppo Italiano di Farmacovigilanza nell'Anziano' (GIFA). Pharmacol Res. 1999;40: 287-295.

World Health Organization. International Drug Monitoring: The Role of the Hospital. Geneva`, Switzerland: World Health Organization`; 1969. WHO Technical Report Series No. 425.

Naranjo CA, Busto U, Sellers EM, et al. A method for estimating the probability of adverse drug reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1981;30: 239-245.

Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12: 189-198.

Lesher EL, Berryhill JS. Validation of the Geriatric Depression Scale--Short Form among inpatients. J Clin Psychol. 1994;50: 256-260.

Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of Illness in the Aged. The Index of Adl: A Standardized Measure of Biological and Psychosocial Function. JAMA. 1963;185: 914-919.

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist. 1969;9: 179-186.

Conwell Y, Forbes NT, Cox C, Caine ED. Validation of a measure of physical illness burden at autopsy: the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1993;41: 38-41.

Guigoz Y, Vellas B, Garry PJ. Assessing the nutritional status of the elderly: The Mini Nutritional Assessment as part of the geriatric evaluation. Nutr Rev. 1996;54: S59-65.

McAvay G, Rodin J. Interindividual and intraindividual variation in repeated measures of 24-hour dietary recall in the elderly. Appetite. 1988;11: 97-110.

Yamada Y, Vlachova M, Richter T, et al. Prevalence and Correlates of Hearing and Visual Impairments in European Nursing Homes: Results From the SHELTER Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014.

Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994;49: M85-94.

Bosaeus I, Wilcox G, Rothenberg E, Strauss BJ. Skeletal muscle mass in hospitalized elderly patients: comparison of measurements by single-frequency BIA and DXA. Clin Nutr. 2014;33: 426-431.

Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Baumgartner RN, Ross R. Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;89: 465-471.

Food and Drug Administration. Standardized definitions for end point events in cardiovascular trials. 2010 (http://www.cdisc.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/0/2356ae38ac190ab8ca4ae0b222392b37/misc/cdisc_november_16__2010.pdf)

Novak M, Guest C. Application of a multidimensional caregiver burden inventory. Gerontologist. 1989;29: 798-803.

The EuroQol Group. http:`\`\www.euroqol.org